Thursday, November 02, 2006

Persian Populations from Prehistoric Times


This article is provided to show how Azeri Turk Iranians are falsifying DNA research


  1. Lors originate from Kurds. That is not true.
  2. Afshar and Shahsavand are turkish tribes. They are called Iranian Tribes
  3. Tehrani is regarded as an ethnic group. There is no Tehrani ethnic group.
  4. Shirazi and Isfahanis are mostly Azeri Turks and also Georgians. The report is silent about that.
  5. Qashqaiis are mostly Persians. They are called Turks. They are turkish speaking Persian tribes.
  6. Medes or Maads are not Persian tribes. They are natives of Iran.

The Human Genome Diversity Project of Iran

This Project (HGDPI) aims to collect biological samples from different population groups throughout Iran, with the aim of building up a representative database of human genetic diversity in Iranian populations. The HGDP was first conceived by the eminent geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University. For many years, he and other human geneticists and anthropologists have been visiting different ethnic groups around the world, collecting samples and trying to build up a picture of how different human populations are related to each other. The samples are seen as immensely valuable, but are in laboratories spread around the world. In 1991, Cavalli-Sforza and a number of colleagues wrote a letter to the scientific journal Genomics, pointing out the need for a systematic study of the whole range of human genetic diversity within the context of the Human Genome Project.

Cavalli-Sforza argues that the Human Genome Project has been Eurocentric, in that both the samples it has taken and the scientists who will assemble the sequence of the human genome are from people of European origin.

Scientists have remarked that when chromosomes are finally mapped and sequenced they will tell us everything there is to know about one French farmer or a lady from Philadelphia. Plans for the project started in 1991, although the collection of samples did not start at that time.) In 1993 it was formally brought under the auspices of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO), a consortium of scientists involved in the Human Genome Project. The project is looking for $25 million over five years to collect and store blood and tissue samples from population groups around the world and to create a central repository and database for study by scientists. Access to the database will essentially be free.

There seem to be two main scientific objectives to the project: a) to trace the evolution and migration of different human populations, with the hope of creating a definitive family tree of human populations; b) to identify genes which confer resistance and vulnerability to disease, and use these to develop medical treatments and tests.

The cells of every person alive today, regardless of where or how they live, contain the same 100000 or so genes. Collectively known as the human genome, these genes contain all the information that makes us appear and function as humans rather than as members of some other species. However, many human genes exist in more than one form and we do not all carry exactly the same forms of every variable gene. The genetic variation from one person to another reflects the evolution of our species.

The main goal of the HGD project lies in its enormous potential in illuminating our understanding of the origin, identity and history of populations living in Iran.

The resource created by the HGD project will also provides valuable information on the role played by genetic factors in the predisposition, linkage or resistance to disease.

Persian Populations from Prehistoric Times

Since ancient times, the people inhabiting the western regions of Central Asia and the Iranian upland played a key role in populating East European territories. It is suggested that one of the routes of the Homo Sapiens penetration to Europe passed though the Caspian regions. Later, during the Mesolitic period, the Caspian regions and shelters at the south of Eastern Europe were the starting points for the recolonization of European territories.

Apparently, Parsi tribes were highly involved in the first stages of Scythian ethnogeny. Later, Scythians spread over wide territories of Europe, central Asia and southern Siberia, accumulating many ethnic components. The Iranian substrate also took a momentous part in the formation of eastern Slavs, specifically Ukrainians and southern ethnic territorial groups of Russians.

According to anthropological data, in the early Middle Ages, Iranian-Slavic symbiosis (Chernyakhovaskaya culture) was a typical feature of the population of east European steppes. In view of this, it is likely that Iranians, or Iranianized tribes, could have been affiliated with eastern Slavs.

Origin of the Persian Population

Aryan or Indo-European is the general name given to the people thought to have originated from the steppes of central and southern Asia. Around 4000-3000 BC, these people started to immigrate to the warmer areas in the south or west. Most scientists think of this as the beginning of distinction between Indo-European tribes. Tribes who emigrated to the west became the ancestors of Germans, Slavs, Greeks, Latins, and probably Celts. People who chose the south as their destination came to be known as Indo-Iranian. There is also a rather small group of people who most likely chose not to participate in this great migration. These later entered the pages of the history as Scythians and Samarians, although they are also believed to be nomadic Indo-Iranians, since their language and customs are closely related to ancient Persians.

For a long time, scientific debates have been going on about whether this theory of the migration of Indo-Europeans is true or not, and about whether these people are in fact related. Reasons presented to support this theory are based on linguistic and cultural evidence. Linguistic studies suggest close similarities in the grammar and lexicon of ancient forms of modern Indo-European languages. Many words are still used in similar ways, and many others are changed forms of similar ancient ones. Cultural background also provides a basis for this theory. Horse breeding, similar agricultural methods, strong fighting abilities, similar religious beliefs and mythological superstitions seem to suggest that all this started from a common background, probably from a time when all these people were the same.

Today, the most widespread theory specifies that the people of Europe (with the exceptions of Estonians, Finns and Magyars), Iran and the Indian subcontinent belong to a common origin.

Indo-Iranians were later divided into two major sections, Indians and Iranians. Indians continued their way further into Dakan (North India), were stopped by local Dravidians, and settled there. They mixed up with the inhabitants, kept their own religion, and became present day Indians. Iranians, on the other hand, were in turn divided into three major tribes, each with its own sub-tribes. These tribes and their area of initiation in the Iranian plateau were:

Maad (Medians): central and north-western parts

Paars (Persians): south-western parts

Parthav (Parthians): north-eastern and eastern parts

Figure 1:Indo-Iranian Linguistic Chart

Iranian Tribes

Most of the tribes of central Iran are from pure Aryan stock, while other tribes such as the Arabs of Khuzistan, the Turks of Quchan, the Qashqais of Fars, the Shahsavans and Afshars of Azarbaijan, and the Turkmans are remnants of races that have passed through Iran during various periods of history. Today, there are over 100 different tribes, each with its own dialect, costumes and territory:

Afshars and Shahsavans:

During the summer season they live in planes on mount Sabalan at an altitude of 4,821 meters; winters they spend in the warmer planes of Moghan, near the Caspian coast.

Baluchis:

They speak a genuine Persian dialect and are scattered over a vast area from the Pakistan border to Iranian deserts. They comprise many smaller tribes, all living on livestock and farming.

Kurds:

The Kurds of Iran inhabit broad lands from the most northern limits of Azarbaijan (northwest of Iran) to the hot plane of Khuzistan (south of Iran). They speak an old Persian dialect and comprise many tribes of which the major branches are: The northern Kurds of Maku and northwestern Azarbaijan; The Mahabad Kurds, occupying the area between Lake Orumya and the mountains of Kurdistan; The Kurds of Sanandaj, with subdivisions in Paveh and Saqqes; and the Kurds of Kermanshah, living between the Zagros Mountains and the Khuzistan Plane.

Bakhtiaris:

They dwell in the high lands of mount Zard Kuh extending to the south of Isfahan, and spend the winter on the Khuzistan plane. Men’s costume includes extraordinarily loose trousers, round hats and short tunics, and dates back to the Arsasid (Parhtian) period, 200 BC-280 AD.

Gilaks:

These people are among the most original tribes of Iran, speaking a pure Persian dialect. They reside in the northwestern provinces of Iran. Their population is dwindling, but one can still see some descendents in the region of Talish.

Turkmans:

They descend from the Mongols and are strongly built, with high cheekbones and slanting eyes. They settled in the extensive fields of Turkman-Sahra, a flat land between the eastern Caspian coast and the mountains of Khorasan, a few hundred years ago.

Qashqaeis:

These Turkish-speaking tribes dwell in the high mountains of Fars. Their costume is quite colorful, almost the same as that of the Bakhtiari tribes, except for their hats. Amazingly, these hats resemble Napoleonic headgear.

Arabs:

These tribes are scattered along the coast of Persian Gulf and the hot plane of Khuzistan. A small population of Arab tribes, descendants of early emigrants, lives near Bojnurd in eastern Khorasan and also in some places in Fars.

Lors:

They are probably the most intact tribes of Iran, retaining their robustness, virility, and tall stature. They are mostly farmers and shepherds and occupy the high lands of Loristan. The Lors are thought to be a division of ancient Kurds, both tribes being considered true descendants of Medes. The Mamasani Lors, dwelling in western mountains of Fars, are one of the principal clans.

Figure 2: People of Iran and Their Locations


Climate of Iran

Iran enjoys considerable climatic diversity, which is subjected to various seasons in different parts of the country, in a way that in some areas the cold of the winter and the heat of the summer can be seen simultaneously. That is why weather in Iran must be considered regionally.

The average annual temperature of Bandar Abbas in the south of Iran is 18.5 degrees Centigrade in January. The average annual rainfall is also highly varied in different parts of the country, the amplitude varying between 2,000 mm. in Gilan and less than 100 mm. in the central parts of Iran. The average annual precipitation in Iran is 275 mm.

In January and February, there are three climatic zones in Iran. The shores of the Caspian Sea have mild and relatively cold weather, central parts experience winter weather conditions and southern parts enjoy moderate and pleasant weather. The whole country enjoys pleasant weathers in spring, especially in May, but in southern parts it grows very hot unexpectedly. The climatic condition of the country becomes complicated in summer. Due to high humidity, the weather of the coastal parts of the Caspian Sea changes in summers. During the day it is hot, but it relatively cools down at night. In southern coastlines of Iran (Persian Golf), days are very hot and nights are relatively warm, with very high humidity, which is intolerable to non-natives.

History

The Iranian Plateau is amongst the oldest civilization centers of the ancient area in Asia, and has an important place in the science of archeology. The history of settlement in the Iranian Plateau, from the new Stone Age to the migration of Aryans, is not yet very clear. However, there is reliable evidence which indicates that Iran has been inhabited since a very long time ago.

Settlement centers have emerged close to water resources like springs and rivers, or totally close to the Alborz and Zagross Mountains. The most important centers of this kind are: Tappeh Sialk in Kashan, Tappeh Hesar in Damghan, Torang Tappeh in Gorgan, Tappeh Hasanloo in Azarbaijan, Marlik Tappeh in Roodbar and Susa (Shoosh) in Khuzistan. In archeological excavations in these civilization centers some vestiges have been discovered which date back to the 5th millennium BC.

Migration of Aryan clans to the Iranian plateau began in the 2nd millennium BC. Out of these tribes, Parthians dwelled in Khorasan, Medes in the west and Parsees in the south of Iran. The Median Empire rose in Hegmataneh (Ekbatan), present Hamedan. The Achaemenidae established the first great Iranian Empire after defeating the Medians and conquering their capital. During the reign of Dariush I (522-485 BC) the Achaemenian Empire extended from the planes of the river Sand in the east to the borders of Greece in the west. Passargad and Persepolis are the vestiges of this period and are amongst the most important historical places as well as the most significant tourist attractions of Iran. Thousands of tourists visit these places annually.

Emergence and influence of Islam in Iran happened in early 7th century AD, after the decline of the Sassanid Empire. A new era began in the history of Iran which caused severe fundamental evolution in the social, political, religious, governmental, and public conditions of the country. Iranians, who were very disappointed with the existing social and economic inequality in the time of the Sassanides, accepted Islam rapidly and tried to expand it and enrich its cultural magnanimity. In spite of accepting Islam, Iranians never concealed their opposition to the dominance of the Omavid and Abbasid Caliphs and their tyrannies, and founded many autonomous movements to confront them. On the other hand, the Caliphs, in order to neutralize and suppress these Iranian movements, which were based on the partisanship of the family of the Prophet of Islam and the establishment of a government based on imamate, tried to support non-Iranian forces. Due to these constant wars of attrition among local governors, their power was exhausted, and so grounds were prepared for the dominance of strange tribes of central Asia, like the Saljoogh Turks, the Mongols and the Taymoorians. In the Safavid era, the second great Iranian Empire was founded and Shiiism, the disciples of which had been severely restricted until then, became formal. The dynamic nature of Shiism and its political and social commitments firmly safeguarded the independence and the national identity of Iran against the Ottoman assaults. Iran, as a new political and religious power, could once again hoist the flag of resistance against a very powerful empire that was the claimant of supremacy in the Islamic world. With the decline of the Safavids, the Afshars and then the Zands took the throne. After the Zands, the era of the Qajar dynasty began, during which the influence of England and Russia in Iran’s internal affairs expanded.

Today the population of Iran is approximate 70 million, of which about 47 million live in urban areas, about 23 million in villages and in major cities like Tehran, Meshed, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz, Qum, Ahwaz, Rasht, Orumyeh, and Kermanshah.

Iran is situated on the route to Central Asia and Turkey as well as western countries. Different ethnic groups live in Iran, among which Farsis, Kurds, Lors, Balooches, Bakhtiaris, Azari Turks, Taleshes, Turkamans, Qashqais and Arabs may be pointed out. Smaller ethnic groups also live in Iran. Turkamans, who live in Turkaman Sahara and north of Khorasan, are different from other Iranian ethnic groups in appearance, language, and culture. Qashqais, who are of Turkish origin, live in the central part of Iran. Arab clans mostly live in Khuzistan and are scattered along the coastlines of Persian Gulf.

Some groups of colored people, who are the descendants of slave trade with Zanzibar, are scattered in the southern provinces of Iran. The existing minority in the south of Iran also descends from Indian traders of past times.

Sampling

Samples from individuals within each of these populations were collected (Table 1, Figure 2) and the DNA content was analyzed to produce data on the frequency of occurrence within the population of an agreed set of alleles or other genetic markers.

In order to establish a resource that would be available for many years and that would allow future scientists to study any polymorphism, and in order to provide a back-up source of original sequence DNA, all blood samples were used to develop cell lines (according to standard cell line preparation methods).

Table 1. Iranian Ethnic groups and sample size

No.

Province

City

Ethnic groups

Total samples

Male

Female

1

Khorasan

Mashad

Khorasani

100

64

36

2

Yazd

Yazd

Yazdi

138

63

75

3

Lorestan

Khoramabad

Lor

99

58

41

4

Kerman

Kerman

Kermani

70

36

14

5

Gilan

Rasht

Gilak

150

83

67

6

Phars

Shiraz

Fars

100

91

9

7

Golestan

Bandar Torkman

Torkman

150

96

54

8

Mazandaran

Babol

Mazandarani

101

84

17

9

Tehran

Tehran

Tehrani Jew Ashoori

Armenian

91 41 13

62

91

25

11

-

16

2

10

Khuzistan

Ahvaz

Arab

161

97

64

11

Kordestan

Sanandaj

Kord

101

81

20

12

Hormozgan

Bandar Abbas

Gheshm

Bandari Negro

Iland

142

62

63

132

62

63

10

-

-

13

West Azarbaijan

Oroomyeh

Azari

Ashoori

150

51

97

42

53

9

14

Sistan-Baloochestan

Zahedan

Zaboli

Balouch

31

55

12

29

19

26

15

Isfahan

Isfahan

Isfahani

50

19

31


TOTAL



1981

1336

612

Scientific Team:

M. M. Banooi, DVM

Head of: Sampling and Cell Line Preparation

F. Beyrami jamal, Ph.D

(Biochemistry)

Head of: Identification of Genetic Polymorphism of p53 , GST-P1, NQO1, CYP2C9 in different populations from Iran

P. Derekhshandeh, Ph.D

(Molecular Genetics)

Head of: Study of Genomic Diversity on Three Markers: SDF1-680IA, CCR5-AS9029G and CCR2-V641 in different Iranian ethnic groups.

M. Hashemzadeh, Ph.D

(Molecular Genetics)

Head of: Study of Genomic Diversity on Four VNTR loci (D1S80, D17S5, D19S20 and APOB) in different Iranian ethnic groups

M. Houshmand, Ph.D

(Molecular Genetics)

Head of: Investigation on Iranian Mitochondrial Haplogroups

A. Mesbah, Ph.D

(Biochemistry)

F. Mirzajani, Ph.D

(Biochemistry)

F. Mahjoubi

(Cytogenetics)

Heads of project: Y-chromosome STR Haplotype in the Iranian Population

Project Consuler: Prof. Dariush D. Farhud.

For more information please contact to head of project:

Dr. MOHAMMAD H. SANATI

Email: m-sanati@nrcgeb.ac.ir

3 comments:

Tarig Anter said...

Let us discuss how Iranians became considered culturally and more important ethnically as Persians. The term Iran (Aryan) is very old while Persia is appeared just 600-800 BC.
There are many disputed facts about the processes of Turkification of Iran and the Turkic origins of Persians:

1- The Turkification of the Iranian people passed through at least three phases:
A. The First Phase: was carried out by Turkic invaders, migrants, and settlers that led to the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire and the invention of Persian stock and Persian Zoroastrianism starting from 550 BC.
B. The Second Phase: was done by the Safavid Dynasty which violently imposed Shiism on Iran and turned the Iranians from Sunnis to Twelvers Shiat by force starting from 1501 AD.
C. The Third Phase: is an on going process that started by restoring the original name “Iran” in 1935 by Reza Shah Pahlavi to replace the imposed name “Persia” without restoring the Iranian identity of Iranians, who are still considered ethnically “Persians”, while they only speak Persian. This developing phase is aiming to erase the Iranian ancient indigenous national identity, and specially the Kurds who could lead the revival of other native Iranian groups.
Turkic Speakers Join Forces in Iran’s Parliament
In January 2017 an unprecedented formation of a cross-factional parliamentary group of Turkic speakers stirred controversy in Iran. The recent move by Turkic parliamentarians could push the Iranians to stand up against the processes of Turkification and Persianisation of Iran.

Iranian “Islamic” Parliament and the Supreme Leader of Iran are conspicuously silent towards the past and present Turkification of Iranians and the falsification their identity, history and cultures.

2- Shiism, Sunnism, and Sufism ore just various rival forms of Turkic Islam and all of them are Turkic tool to rule over the Iranians, Arabs, Levant, India, Asia, and Africa.

Linguistics-Anthropology-Humanity said...

I am strongly skeptical any time an article uses a term such as "pure" to describe any group of people. There is no such thing as a "pure" group of humans, evidenced by genetics.

In addition, "strong fighting abilities" is not a unique cultural trait. "Mythological superstitions" is not accepted terminology in any academic writing. What is today called "mythology" is what one calls religion that is believed to be false or (at best) no longer practiced. Its connotation is degrading. "Superstitions" are essentially beliefs that the speaker does not share and/or have been disproven by science. However, these terms could just as easily apply to modern religion. They are inappropriate in any respectable academic writing as they smack of ethnocentrism.

Your assessment, and that of the people you reference, ignores the possibilities and evidence of cultural mixing as well as independent development of cultural traits. A cultural aspect can be acquired from another group without necessarily having significant genetic exchange; some cultural aspects develop independently in vastly different groups. That does not mean that the two groups are genetically related.

Lastly, when discussing ethnic groups, it is paramount to remember that genetics and culture are not the same thing. Two families can share the same culture with relatively little genetic similarity (at least as far as human genes get.) Ethicity is a combination of "race" and culture. At various times and for various reasons, a group might identify more closely with a group based on either of these two elements. Nationality (politics) and religion also influence how people want to be identified. It seems that many of the terms that are being argued about here are not always referring to the same elements. Thus, confusion is understandable.

In order for you to have any kind of productive communication regarding anthropology and genetics as they apply to our modern world, the issues I stated above must be dealt with. I hope you will take these comments under consideration. They are intended as constructive criticism. Thank you for your contributions.

Linguistics-Anthropology-Humanity said...

I am strongly skeptical any time an article uses a term such as "pure" to describe any group of people. There is no such thing as a "pure" group of humans, evidenced by genetics.

In addition, "strong fighting abilities" is not a unique cultural trait. "Mythological superstitions" is not accepted terminology in any academic writing. What is today called "mythology" is what one calls religion that is believed to be false or (at best) no longer practiced. Its connotation is degrading. "Superstitions" are essentially beliefs that the speaker does not share and/or have been disproven by science. However, these terms could just as easily apply to modern religion. They are inappropriate in any respectable academic writing as they smack of ethnocentrism.

Your assessment, and that of the people you reference, ignores the possibilities and evidence of cultural mixing as well as independent development of cultural traits. A cultural aspect can be acquired from another group without necessarily having significant genetic exchange; some cultural aspects develop independently in vastly different groups. That does not mean that the two groups are genetically related.

Lastly, when discussing ethnic groups, it is paramount to remember that genetics and culture are not the same thing. Two families can share the same culture with relatively little genetic similarity (at least as far as human genes get.) Ethicity is a combination of "race" and culture. At various times and for various reasons, a group might identify more closely with a group based on either of these two elements. Nationality (politics) and religion also influence how people want to be identified. It seems that many of the terms that are being argued about here are not always referring to the same elements. Thus, confusion is understandable.

In order for you to have any kind of productive communication regarding anthropology and genetics as they apply to our modern world, the issues I stated above must be dealt with. I hope you will take these comments under consideration. They are intended as constructive criticism. Thank you for your contributions.

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I live in Los Angeles and I work with computer related jobs. I speak 4 languages. I am married to a Persian girl who is from a region where the Persian Empire was based.